Estimation of the integrated UV erythemal radiation incident on vertical planes with the SMARTS2 model

DOI: 10.3369/tethys.2011.8.02

Tethys no. 8 pp.: 13 - 20

Abstract

The SMARTS2 model has been used to estimate UV erythemal radiation (UVER) integrated on a horizontal plane and on vertical planes oriented north and south. The values obtained using the model were compared with experimental data provided by three radiometers YESUVB-1 located on these planes. To quantify the results, the statistical parameters considered were mean deviation, mean absolute deviation and root mean square deviation (RMSD). The results on a horizontal plane show RMSD values of about 10%, when working with aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, and 16% when working with the Ångström β coefficient. As for the results obtained for the north and south planes, these reach very high errors. The RMSD in these cases is 20.5% for the south plane and 32.5% for the north plane, in the most favorable of cases, when there are optical depth values to quantify the load of aerosols. These results do not improve even considering an  annual trend, taking into account the different seasons, nor considering different periods throughout the day. We therefore consider that the SMARTS2 is not suitable for estimating the UVER incident on inclined planes.

References

  • - Chandrasekhar, S., 1950: Radiative transfer, Oxford Univ. Press, UK. Republished by Dover, New York, USA (1960).
  • - CIE, 2000: Erythema Reference Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose, Commission Internationale de l’ Éclairage Publications, Vienna, ISO 17166 CIE S 007 / E, CIE Standard., 4 pp.
  • - Estellés, V., Martínez-Lozano, J. A., Utrillas, M. P., and Campanelli, M., 2007: Columnar aerosol properties in Valencia (Spain) by ground-based Sun photometry, J Geophys Res, 112, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008167.
  • - Esteve, A. R., Marín, M. J., Martínez-Lozano, J. A., Tena, F., Utrillas, M. P., and Cañada, J., 2006: UV index on tilted surfaces, Photochem Photobiol, 82, 1047–1052, doi: 10.1562/2005-11-30-RA-743.
  • - Frederick, J. E. and Lubin, D., 1988: The budget of biologically active radiation in the earth atmosphere system, J Geophys Res, 93, 3825–3832, doi: 10.1029/JD093iD04p03825.
  • - Gueymard, C. A., 1995: Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine, version 2 (SMARTS2): Algorithms description and performance assessment, Report FSEC-PF-270-95, Florida Solar Energy Center.
  • - Gueymard, C. A., 2005a: Interdisciplinary applications of a versatile spectral solar irradiance model: A review, Energy, 30, 1551–1576, doi: 10.1016/S0360-5442(04)00224-5.
  • - Gueymard, C. A., 2005b: User’s manual SMARTS, Solar consulting services, USA.
  • - Holben, B., Eck, T., Slutsker, I., Tanré, D., Buis, J., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., Jankowiak, I., and Smirnov, A., 1998: AERONET-a federate instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Rem Sens Environ, 66, 1–16, doi: 10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
  • - ICNIRP, 2004: Guidelines on limits of exposure of UV radiation, Health Phys, 87, 171–186, International Commission on Non–Ionizing Radiation Protection.
  • - Madronich, S., 1987: Photodissociation in the atmosphere. Part 1. Actinic flux and the effect of ground reflections and clouds, J Geophys Res, 92, 9740–9752.
  • - Martínez-Lozano, J. A., Marín, M. J., Tena, F., Utrillas, M. P., Sánchez-Muniosguren, L., González, C., Cuevas, E., Redondas, A., Lorente, J., de Cabo, X., Cachorro, V., Vergaz, R., de Frutos, A., Díaz, J. P., Expósito, F. J., de la Morena, B., and Vilaplana, J. M., 2002: UV Index experimental values during the years 2000 and 2001 from the Spanish broadband UVB radiometric network, Photochem Photobiol, 76, 181–187.
  • - McKinlay, A. F. and Diffey, B. L., 1987: A reference spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, CIE Journal, 6, 17–22.
  • - Meyer, B., Seckmeyer, G., and Kylling, A., 1997: Systematic longterm comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modelling results, J Geophys Res, 102, 8755–8766.
  • - Parisi, A. V. and Kimlin, M. G., 1999: Horizontal and sun-normal spectral biologically effective ultraviolet irradiances, J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol, 53, 70–74, doi: 10.1016/ S1011-1344(99)00128-1.
  • - Pérez, R., Ineichen, P., Seals, R., and Zelenka, A., 1990: Making full use of the clearness index for parametering hourly insolation conditions, Sol Energy, 45, 111–114.
  • - Ricchiazzi, P., Yang, S., Gautier, C., and Sowle, D., 1998: SBDART: A research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere, Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 79, 2101–2114, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2101:SARATS>2.0.CO;2.
  • - Scotto, J., Cotton, G., Urbach, F., Berger, D., and Fears, T., 1988: Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation: surface measurements in the United States. 1974 to 1985, Science, 239, 762–764, doi: 10.1126/science.3340857.
  • - Serrano, D., Marín, M. J., Utrillas, M. P., Tena, F., and Martínez-Lozano, J. A., 2010: Measurement and modelling of global erythemal irradiance on inclined planes, Tethys, 7, 57–66, doi: 10.3369/tethys.2010.7.05.
  • - Shettle, E. P. and Fenn, R. W., 1979: Models for the aerosol of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties, AFGL-TR-79-0214, Environmental Res. Paper no. 676, Hanscom AFL, MA.
  • - Utrillas, M. P., Boscá, J. V., Martínez-Lozano, J. A., nada, J. C., Tena, F., and Pinazo, J. M., 1998: A comparative study of SPECTRAL2 and SMARTS2 parameterised models based on spectral irradiance measurements at Valencia, Spain, Solar Energy, 63, 161–171, doi: 10. 1016/ S0038-092X(98)00058-9.
  • - Utrillas, M. P., Marín, M. J., Esteve, A. R., Tena, F., Cañada, J., and Martínez-Lozano, J. A., 2007: Diffuse UVER radiation experimental values, J Geophys Res, 112, doi: 10.1029/ 2007JD008846.
  • - Utrillas, M. P., Marín, M. J., Esteve, A. R., Estellés, V., Tena, F., Cañada, J., and Martínez-Lozano, J. A., 2009: Diffuse ultraviolet erythematic irradiance (UVER) on inclined planes: a comparison of experimental and modelled data, Photochem Photobiol, 20, 1245–1253, doi: 10.1111/ j.1751-1097.2009.00573.x.
  • - Utrillas, M. P., Martínez-Lozano, J. A., and Nuñez, M., 2010: Ultraviolet radiation protection by a beach umbrella, Photochem Photobiol, 86, 449–456, doi: 10.1111/j.1751- 1097.2009.00677.x.
  • - Vilaplana, J. M., Cachorro, V. E., Sorribas, M., Luccini, E., de Frutos, A. M., Berjón, and de la Morena, B., 2006: Modified calibration procedures for a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 biometer based on spectral measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer, Photochem Photobiol, 82, 508–514, doi: 10.1562/2005-06-23-RA-590.
  • - Weihs, P., 2002: Influence of ground reflectivity and topography on erythemal UV radiation on inclined planes, Int J Biometeorol, 46, 95–104.
  • - WMO, 1986: A preliminary Cloudless Standard for Radiation Computation,World Climate Programme, WCP-112. WMO/TDNo. 24. WMO (World Meteorological Organization), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • - WMO, 1998: Report of the WMO-WHO Meeting of Experts on Standardization of UV Indices and Their Dissemination to the Public, WMO Global Atmosphere Watch No. 127, WMO/TD No. 921. WMO (World Meteorological Organization), Geneva.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License


Indexed in Scopus, Thomson-Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scientific Commons, Latindex, Google Scholar, DOAJ, ICYT (CSIC)

Partially funded through grants CGL2007-29820-E/CLI, CGL2008-02804-E/, CGL2009-07417-E and CGL2011-14046-E of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation